[First published on Municipal Journal blog, 26 November 2015]
Yesterday's Autumn Statement came at a challenging time for London. The capital's growing population is facing spiralling house prices, and putting pressure on infrastructure and services - from homelessness and social care to transport.
The Chancellor’s housing announcements took centre stage. The London Help-To-Buy scheme will raise the equity loan available for new homes from 20 to 40 per cent, reflecting the limited impact of the scheme in London to date. But the long-term impact on affordability is more questionable. If the scheme does not stimulate extra supply it will merely inflate a house price bubble.
The Chancellor also extended eligibility for shared ownership. Applicants will no longer have to meet locally-set criteria of living or working in a particular area or profession, and the income cap will be raised to £90,000 in London. But as Centre for London’s recent report Fair to Middling observed, the model doesn’t work for everyone; social rent, affordable rent and other forms of low-cost housing are also an essential part of the mix.
We don’t yet know the detailed allocations for local government in London, but the cuts appear to have been a lot less severe than many feared. The Chancellor boasted that cash expenditure by local authorities would be as high in 2019/20 as it is in 2015/16, but real terms spending will nonetheless fall by seven per cent over the four years, and will drop sharply over the next two years before recovering.
It could have been a lot worse - many were forecasting real terms cuts of 30 per cent or more, but the continued squeeze will not be easy, especially coming on top of the five lean years that saw London boroughs' spending falling by around 28 per cent in real terms. As Centre for London's analysis of the last round of cuts Running on Fumes showed, London boroughs have been resilient in coping with austerity to date. Over the next four years, the quest for efficiency savings will continue, and front-line services are unlikely to escape unscathed.
But the headline figures mask a quiet revolution. Revenue support from central government will fall from £11.5 billion to £5.4 billion over four years. The balance will be made up by retained business rates and council tax, forecast to rise from £29 billion to £35 billion over the same period (the figures do not take account of plans for full business rate retention). Many will welcome this devolution of fiscal responsibility, but questions of distribution and fairness will loom ever larger, as poorer boroughs, facing greater demands on services, struggle to grow their business tax base, and hesitate to impose permitted council tax rises to support social services.
Major London capital projects receive a boost: funding for the 'Olympicopolis' cultural and educational complex in Stratford has been announced (again), and the Government will bring land at Old Oak Common under single control. Further east, the extension of London Overground to Barking Riverside will enable higher quality development of one of London's longest-delayed sites, and investment in Ebbsfleet infrastructure should support the realisation of the new 'garden city' recommended by Centre for London.
One of the most dramatic changes is to Transport for London’s funding. Alongside pledges of an £11 billion in capital investment, the revenue grant that makes up 6 per cent of TfL’s annual costs will be phased out, saving £700 million by 2019/20. TfL will be expected to make up the shortfall through efficiency savings, through increasing fares (another blow to London's modest earners), or by generating revenue from the land it owns across London. This land has long been eyed as a potential source of housing; with TfL’s budget under pressure, the incentive will be to maximise value. Expect some fiery discussions about tenure mix and commercial value.